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Impressionist Art / Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté-Canadian
« Last post by Linda Lovell on November 18, 2019, 02:03:52 PM »

Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté

“I have worked hard and applied myself wholeheartedly as a painter can when he loves his art, is totally absorbed by it and makes it the purpose of his life.” (1901)
Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté was a painter, sculptor, and church decorator. He is regarded by many as French Canada’s most versatile artist. Known for his landscapes of the thawing winter rivers of Arthabaska, his topics also include genre, history, portraits, and the female nude.
Suzor-Coté showed a talent for drawing from an early age. As a young man, he apprenticed with painter-decorator Joseph-Thomas Rousseau. Together, they created intricate decorations in several churches in and around Arthabaska. Looking to further his art education, Suzor-Coté made his first of many trips to France in 1891. He took lessons in rendering the human form at the École des Beaux-Arts and began to sketch the countryside en plein air.
Inspired by French painters like Jean-François Millet, Suzor-Coté began to focus on local farmers in paintings such as
Return from the Harvest Field
, 1903. He began his sculptural work in 1907, where he continued the theme of daily life, as in Caughnawaga Women, 1924. In 1909, he received a commission to paint the portrait of Sir Wilfred Laurier. Suzor-Coté received many awards and distinctions, including the bronze medal at the 1900 Paris World Fair. He was also a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts.
Impressionist Art / Maurice Cullen- Canadian
« Last post by Linda Lovell on November 18, 2019, 02:01:30 PM »

Maurice Cullen
At some hour of the day the commonest subject is beautiful."
- Maurice Cullen, cited in 'Maurice Cullen', essay by Cullen's stepson, the artist Robert W. Pilot, in Maurice Cullen 1866-1934 (Art Gallery of Hamilton, 1956)Cullen depicted Canadian landscape in accordance with local terrain, light and colour. He composed his landscape paintings and pastels in keeping with European and Canadian tradition. His innovative use of luminous, Impressionist-influenced colours influenced the next generation of Canadian artists, especially the Group of Seven.
From 1884, Maurice Cullen trained in Montreal under Abbé Chabert at the Institut national des Beaux-Arts et des Sciences, and with the sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert. Cullen moved to Paris in 1889, studying painting with Jean-Léon Gérôme and Elie Delaunay at the École des Beaux-Arts. He enrolled in the studio Julian and studio Colarossi, meeting James Wilson Morrice and William Brymner. In Paris, Cullen learned traditional French academic painting, but encountered Impressionism and the Barbizon School. He returned to Montreal in 1895. He revisited Europe in 1895-1902 and 1925, painting in France, Italy, the Netherlands and North Africa, and served as a war artist in 1918-1919 (Huy on the Meuse, 1919). In Québec and Beaupré, Cullen painted out-of-doors in all seasons, often with Morrice and Brymner.
Maurice Galbraith Cullen grew up in Montreal, studying art privately. After attempting a commercial career, he studied sculpting. At 22, he enrolled as a student at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. There he met many Canadian art students, and changed to landscape painting. Returning to Montreal in 1895, Cullen spent his summers painting in the Québec countryside and his winters painting city views (Winter Evening, Quebec, c. 1905). He visited Europe (Customs Port, Venice, 1901), Africa (Biskra, 1893) and (in 1930) the Rockies. His winter landscapes (The Ice Harvest, c. 1913) were especially admired. He exhibited in Paris and with many Canadian arts organizations, and taught from 1891 to 1920 at the Art Association of Montreal. In 1900, he became the stepfather of the artist Robert W. Pilot.
Impressionist Art / William Brymer -Canadian
« Last post by Linda Lovell on November 18, 2019, 01:58:42 PM »

William Brymner

“There are other kinds of beauty besides that of a pretty face or form, or the brightness of a sunset. The beauty of the arrangement of spots of colour and light and shade, or even of lines, are not often thought of.” (1897)
William Brymner was an influential art teacher and painter of figures and landscapes. He painted directly from nature, in the style of the French Barbizon school. Always experimenting with different techniques and viewpoints, he often chose Canadian subjects, such as rural Quebec.
Brymner studied at the Académie Julian in Paris. He settled in Montreal in 1886, where he taught for thirty-five years at the Art Association of Montreal. Among his students were painters A.Y. Jackson and Clarence Gagnon. Brymner strove to create spaces where artists of all disciplines could gather and exchange ideas. He served as president of the Royal Canadian Academy for nine years. He also worked with the Canadian Art Club, the Pen and Pencil Club of Montreal, and the Arts Club of Montreal. He travelled frequently through Europe and Quebec’s Eastern Townships, setting up a studio in Saint-Eustache with fellow artist Maurice Cullen.
A Wreath of Flowers, 1884
was Brymner’s diploma piece for the RCA. Painted at Runswick Bay, the work demonstrates his narrative interests and his ability to paint figures and landscape. In 1892, Canadian Pacific Railway commissioned Brymner to produce a series of paintings promoting the scenic views of the Canadian West. He won a gold medal at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo in 1901, and silver at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. In 1916, Brymner was made a companion of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George.
Member Events / Landscapes of the Mind
« Last post by Tom Greene on November 17, 2019, 12:42:30 PM »
Impressionist Art / The painting techniques that they used
« Last post by Linda Lovell on October 12, 2019, 02:52:35 PM »
Impressionists strongly emphasized the effects of light in their paintings.
They used short, thick strokes of paint to capture the essence of the object rather than the subject’s details

Quickly applied brush strokes give the painterly illusion of movement and spontaneity.

A thick impasto application of paint means that even reflections on the water’s surface appear as substantial as any object in a scene.

The Impressionists lightened their palettes to include pure, intense colours.

Complementary colours were used for their vibrant contrasts and mutual enhancement when juxtaposed.

Impressionists avoided hard edges by working wet into wet.

The surface of an Impressionist painting is opaque. Impressionists did not use the thin paint films and glazes that were popularized by Renaissance artists.

Impressionists often painted at a time of day when there were long shadows. This technique of painting outdoors helped impressionists better depict the effects of light and emphasize the vibrancy of colours.

They used Optical Mixing rather than mixing on the palette.Broken colour refers to the effect of blending colours optically rather than on the palette, eliminating perfect coverage and smoothly-blended transitions.

The Impressionist painters used layers of colours, leaving gaps in the top layers to reveal the colours underneath. The technique is achieved through hatching, cross-hatching, stippling, dry-brushing, and sgraffito (scratching into the paint). Mixing of brighter colours is done directly on the canvas to aid in creating the broken colour effect and only darker colours are mixed on the palette.

Trying to paint in the impressionists style
following their painting techniques incorporate the key features
Plein-air (outdoor) painting
Subject is landscape, everyday scene or still life of everyday items
Rapid, spontaneous, short, loose brushstrokes
The realistic depiction of the light and shadow of a particular moment, which will change when the light changes
Use opaque paint mixed optically on the canvas in broken colour
Use brighter colours and mix less on the palette
capture that moment by capturing the light of that moment, not the detail
Impressionist Art / Willard Metcalf – Beautiful Impressionist Landscapes
« Last post by Linda Lovell on October 05, 2019, 07:36:55 PM »
Willard Leroy Metcalf (July 1, 1858 – March 9, 1925) was a prominent American painter known for his beautiful impressionist landscapes. He initially started with portraits and illustration, during which time he would have developed his accuracy and drawing ability, but it was his landscapes which brought him to fame.Willard Metcalf was a member of a group of artists known as The Ten American Painters (or The Ten).  Edward Simmons, Willard Metcalf, Childe Hassam, J. Alden Weir, Robert Reid , William Merritt Chase, Frank W. Benson, Edmund C. Tarbell, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Joseph DeCamp.As you can see, there were some very prominent members in this group, such as Childe Hassam, Julian Alden Weir and of course Willard Metcalf.  Winslow Homer was also invited to the group but declined.His StyleHe is generally considered an impressionist but in my opinion his style seems to be somewhere between impressionism and realism. His paintings are much more delicate and refined than paintings by some of the other famous impressionists. But there is certainly an element of impressionism in his paintings.Here are some of his beautiful landscapes for which he is so well known for:( Autumn Festival, Autumn Glory , Early Spring Afternoon, Central Park, Gloucester Harbour,  Havana Harbor , Haystacks, Indian Summer, Vermont, Mountain View From High Field )A Demonstration Of Fluid BrushworkNone of his paintings appear overly tight or refined. Yet, they do not appear sloppy or unrealistic either. The paintings have an almost effortless beauty to them. Part of the reason for this is Metcalf's fluid and confident brushwork. He did not overwork his paintings, but rather left most of his brushwork clearly visible. The painting named below demonstrates some of his fluid brushwork. Also, notice those bold dabs of vivid orange and red which command your attention towards the center of the painting.( The Fire Of Autumn ) A Demonstration Of How To Use GreenGreen always seems to cause issues for landscape painters. I'm not entirely sure why that is the case. It may have something to do with how we perceive green. As Pablo Picasso once said:"They'll sell you thousands of greens. Veronese green and emerald green and cadmium green and any sort of green you like, but that particular green, never."Willard Metcalf demonstrates in the following paintings just how to use green. There are all kinds of greens in these paintings - vivid greens, tinted greens and some subtle greens. But there are no greens which appear out of place. I also particularly like his use of that vivid green in the painting directly below. It is difficult to get away with using such a vivid green in landscape painting, but he pulls it off well.( Swollen Brook,  Dogwood Blossoms , Hillside Pastures , The Red Oak,  Unfolding Buds)Other SubjectsWhilst he was renowned for his landscape paintings, he also painted other subjects such as portraits, seascapes and interior scenes. Here are some of those paintings:(The Ballet Dancers, On The Suffolk Coast,  Young Lady On the Beach, )I hope you enjoyed these paintings by Willard Metcalf. There is much to learn from his fluid brushwork and use of color. If you want to explore some of his paintings, you should
Impressionist Art / Tips To Help You Paint Like An Impressionist
« Last post by Linda Lovell on September 29, 2019, 01:17:20 PM »
Characteristics of impressionism

Before I get into the tips, here are some of the characteristics of impressionism:Broken color;Loose and fluent brushwork;Relaxed and sometimes inaccurate drawing;A focus on capturing the fleeting environment and how we see the world; and Compositions which place you in the painting.

1. Use broken color to create the illusion of depth and movement If you look up close at many of Claude Monet’s paintings, you will notice that he rarely used a static color, but rather a myriad of broken colors which optically blend together when viewed from a distance. This gives Monet’s paintings a certain depth and vibrancy which few artists seem to be able to achieve.Instead of painting the sky a static blue, Monet often used a range of broken yellows, purples, blues and greens. Instead of painting trees a static green, Monet used broken reds, yellows, greens and blues.In most cases, Monet used a dominant color and many accent colors.His paintings of water lilies are brilliant examples of broken colors. If you look up close, you can see just how many colors he used all through his paintings. Yet when you step back, everything works in a peaceful harmony.

2. Use bold strokes to direct your viewer around the canvasThe top impressionists were not afraid to use bold and almost aggressive brushwork. If used appropriately, this kind of brushwork can add a very dynamic element to your paintings.Vincent van Gogh is obviously the first artist to come to mind when we think of bold brushwork. In my opinion, his brushwork is one of the reasons for his great fame post-mortem.

3. Use large brushes and try to capture form with as few strokes as possible Painting like an impressionist can best be achieved by using brushes much larger than what you are usually comfortable with. This will help you generalize shapes, colors and other elements in your paintings. But make no mistake, it is not easy to paint with large brushes and every stroke needs to be calculated and have a purpose.The best way to learn how to paint with larger brushes is just to force yourself to use them. Put away your smaller brushes and try to complete a few paintings with just larger brushes.In my small painting below, I used a very large brush for the entire painting. You can see the large brushstrokes in the sky.

4. Use your palette knife to create interesting and sometimes dramatic effects The palette knife is an underrated painting tool in my opinion. You can create such interesting effects using the palette knife and it can help you paint like an impressionist as you can use it to apply thick areas of varied colors without going into too much detail.The palette knife is also perfect for adding small accents and highlights to your paintings (for example, the bright glimmer of sunlight which is hitting the top of the water in the distance of your seascape).In my painting below, I used the palette knife to paint the dramatic yellows of the sun.

5. Create stunning contrasts between warm and cool colors Many of the great impressionists skillfully contrasted warm and cool colors in their paintings to create stunning effects. This can be most effective when you have a dominant warm (cool) color contrast against a weaker cool (warm) color. For example, a dominant orange looks very brilliant when contrast against a dirty blue color.

6. If it is not important, simplify it To paint like an impressionist, you need to determine what is actually important in your painting and simplify the rest. If you start adding every detail in the scene you are painting from, then the overall message of your painting will get lost. You want to try and communicate your message through your painting with as few words (strokes) as possible.

Summary Most of these tips will help you simplify the clutter in your paintings and communicate what is actually important. That after all is what impressionism is all about. Do not confuse impressionism with just reckless painting.
Impressionist Art / What You Can Learn From The Impressionists
« Last post by Linda Lovell on September 29, 2019, 01:09:26 PM »
There are many things you can learn from the Impressionists, even if you do not favor the style:You do not need to paint subjects with deep underlying meanings. You can paint flowers merely because you think they are pretty. This places a focus on painting technique over subject matter.You can create a vibration of color by using the broken color technique. This also allows you to blend subjects with the background like Camille Pissarro did in many of his paintings.You do not need to resort to blacks and browns for shadows. You can use blues, purples, greens and so on. This is a much more flexible approach to color and results in more colorful displays.Your impression of the subject is important and unique. This is the reason why two artists can paint the same subject, but end up with completely different paintings.
Impressionist Art / Defining Characteristics of Impressionism
« Last post by Linda Lovell on September 29, 2019, 01:07:19 PM »
The Impressionist movement was marked by a set of distinctive characteristics that represented a radical change in the way art is made and understood.Conspicuous BrushstrokesBefore Impressionism, painters used precise, almost invisible brushstrokes often blended together with golden varnish. The Impressionists, on the other hand, used thick, conspicuous strokes to depict the ephemeral nature of light and the passing of time.Using loose brushstrokes enabled them to paint quickly on the spot and capture the essence of the subject matter before the light changed or the subject moved. This kind of brushwork resulted in energetic paintings which portrayed the fleeting nature of the environment.Bright and Bold Color PaletteThe Impressionists were revolutionary with their approach to color. Instead of mixing several paints together to achieve the desired tone, the Impressionists often used clean, unmixed colors and grouped them together in an array of small brushstrokes to achieve the desired tones. These various colors optically blend together when viewed from afar. Although the Impressionists did not create this technique, they appear to be the first artists who used it as a key feature. As John Singer Sargent explained:"The habit of breaking up one's color to make it brilliant dates from further back than Impressionism - Couture advocates it in a little book called 'Causeries d'Atelier' written about 1860 - it is part of the technique of Impressionism but used for quite a different reason." John Singer SargentAs we can see in this gloomy depiction of a train station in Saint-Lazare, Monet combined emerald green, ultramarine, cobalt blue and even shades of yellow to create a vibration of color:The Impressionists also started to introduce more color when painting shadows. Instead of using blacks and browns, the Impressionists started incorporating blues, greens, purples and other colors with a distinct color tree. This may be due to most of the Impressionist paintings being created outside, where there is much more light and therefore more visible color. Or maybe it was due to a great understanding of how light and color work.The Fleeting Nature of LightPlein air painting allowed the Impressionists to closely study natural light and the way it influences the colors we use. Faithfully painting the light was a primary goal of the Impressionists. That was more important than the subject itself in most cases. Back then, light and color were still a bit of a mystery (and still are).In doing so, many artists painted the same subject matter over and over again under different light and weather conditions. Claude Monet did this on many occasions with haystacks, water lilies and the Rouen Cathedral.Depictions of Ordinary SubjectsThe rise of plein air painting in many ways determined the subjects which the Impressionists painted. Instead of grandiose historical or mythological themes, the Impressionists portrayed things they could see outside - typically an array of vivid landscapes, still lifes and scenes of everyday leisure activities (e.g. picnics, boat rides...).As Pierre-Auguste Renoir said:“What seems most significant to me about our movement [Impressionism] is that we have freed painting from the importance of the subject. I am at liberty to paint flowers and call them flowers, without their needing to tell a story.” Pierre-Auguste RenoirAsymmetrical CompositionsInspired by the then newly developed medium of photography, the Impressionists produced paintings with unusual visual angles that resembled images of moments in time. This is why many Impressionist paintings feature asymmetrical compositions resembling candid photographs taken without the knowledge of their subjects.This is particularly visible in the works of Edgar Degas who, inspired by Japanese prints, painted ballerinas from intimate viewpoints, bringing the viewers into the close proximity of the dancers.
Impressionist Art / The Beginning Of Impressionism
« Last post by Linda Lovell on September 29, 2019, 01:02:11 PM »
The Impressionist art movement was established in the 1860s, France and represented a radical shift from the realistic academic painting that had dominated the era. Depictions of religious themes and historical subject matter, painted with precise brush strokes and restrained colors were highly valued among the art critics of the time.The movement was led by artists Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frederic Bazille who took their canvases outside and established the practice of plein air painting. Their work coincided with the development of portable paint tubes and box easels.Unlike other artists, who only made sketches outdoors and then continued to work on them in the comfort of their studios, these four artists painted plein air from start to finish, depicting vibrant landscapes and capturing the scenes of everyday life. They painted the world as they saw it - imperfect and in constant change. As a result, their paintings seemed messy and unfinished to other artists at the time.The movement caught public attention in 1874 when Impressionist's artworks were exhibited at now-famous Salon des Refusés, which is French for "exhibition of rejects". This was a group show composed of artworks that were submitted for the annual state-sponsored exhibition the Salon, but were rejected by the jury.The official Salon was a prestigious art exhibition held by the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris. After many artists were rejected from the Salon, they protested and this reached French Emperor Napoleon III. The Emporer ordered that the rejected pieces should be displayed at a separate show nearby. The Emporer's office issued the following statement:"Numerous complaints have come to the Emperor on the subject of the works of art which were refused by the jury of the Exposition. His Majesty, wishing to let the public judge the legitimacy of these complaints, has decided that the works of art which were refused should be displayed in another part of the Palace of Industry." (Published in Le Moniteur on 24 April 1863)The exhibition attracted numerous visitors, art critics and public alike, but the artworks were mostly ridiculed. In a rather harsh review by art critic Louis Leroy, he mockingly referred to the movement as impressionist, the name coined after the title of Monet’s painting Impression, Sunrise. Little did he know that the word he used as an insult would mark the whole art movement.
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